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Gardner Fleming

John Edmund Gardner (November 20, 1926 - 3 August 2007) was an English espionage novelist. He wrote 14 James Bond novels from 1981 to 1996.

In 1979, Gardner was asked to revive Ian Fleming's James Bond series of novels. Between 1981 and 1996, Gardner wrote fourteen James Bond novels. While the books were commercial successes, Gardner was ambivalent about writing novels with a character he hadn't created. Gardner had an ambivalent view on being the Bond author, once saying that "I'm very grateful to have been selected to keep Bond alive. But I'd much rather be remembered for my own work than I would for Bond".

James Harker, writing in The Guardian, considered that the Gardner books were "dogged by silliness", giving examples of Scorpius, where much of the action is set in the tiny town of Chippenham, and Win, Lose or Die, where "Bond gets chummy with an unconvincing Maggie Thatcher".

With the influence of the American publishers, Putnam's, the Gardner novels showed an increase in the number of Americanisms used in the book, such as a waiter wearing "pants", rather than trousers, in The Man from Barbarossa. In 1996 Gardner officially retired from writing Bond novels. Glidrose Publications quickly chose Raymond Benson to continue the literary stories of James Bond.

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